Low Relief, also known as Bas-Relief (from the Italian basso rilievo). Is where the projecting image of a sculpture has a very shallow overall depth. (Read more after Break)
Indigenous Knowledge can be defined as local knowledge. This type of knowledge is unique to a given culture or society. (Read more after Break)
High Relief, also know as 'alto-rilievo', is where more than half of the mass of the sculpted figure, object or feature projects from the grounding/surface. (Read more after Break)

Relief is a sculptural technique. Relief is a term derived from the latin word, levo meaning raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has therefore been raised above and emanates from the background plane. Relief Sculpture is achieved through the build up of layers on a flat grounding. Where a relief is cut from a surface, there is a lowering of the field/ground, leaving the un-sculpted parts appearing to have been raised up from the surface. Donatello is a notable sculptor, and Mantegna is a painter who is known for imitating sculptural relief within his paintings. (Read more after Break)
Aerial perspective, also known as atmospheric perspective, is where colours and tones change the further a landscape recedes from the spectator. Therefore the hues change within the atmosphere of the painting as the viewers gaze diverts from the foreground to the background of the painting. The effect can be achieved through the subtle gradation of tonal colours between the foreground and background, in order to create the illusion of space, by imitating the effects of light on surfaces the further you look away into the distance in nature.

Most used and developed by:
Leonardo da Vinci

Does the European model of the welfare state create a culture of dependency? With certain groups and sections of society becoming dependent on the state.

Other problems created are: increased incentive for welfare tourism. Other unintentional 
side effect is the increased culture of dependency, were it is more beneficial to receive state
benefits, than it is to find employment. This issue has been cultivated by an ineffective benefits 
system, which does not effectively incentivise the citizen to go out and find employment.
In addition, to receive benefits in some communities no longer carries with it the social
stigma that it once did, which was a natural incentive for people to go out and find work.
Thereby resulting in a waste of human potential. With certain groups in society,
also exploiting the system.
The innovation which perspective made towards painting was to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on what was essentially a two-dimensional surface. Linear Perspective employs lines in order to create the impression of three-dimensional space on the artist's canvas. (Read more after Break)
The Vanishing Point within a painting forms part of a linear perspective (also known as straight line perspective) scheme, which provides structure and order to the composition of a painting. (Read more after the Break)
The Picture Plane is the border between the fictive internal space of the painting and the real world outside of the canvas. (Read more after the Break)
Cultural property is the tangible constituents of the cultural heritage of a particular society, social grouping or civilization. (Read more after Break)
The foreground is the area of the picture space which is closest to the viewer. The foreground is the area which is located directly above the picture plane. (Read more after Break)
Check out our post on medieval illuminated manuscripts:

There are three prominent areas or spaces to a painting's overall composition, from the picture plane (which is the bottom edge of the painting/canvas) transcending upwards towards the center of the painting and continuing to move into the remainder of the picture. The areas of the painting are as follows, from area closest to the viewer to the area that is furthest away: the foreground, middle-ground and background.

The background is the area of simulated space which is furthest away from the spectator, that is the background is the furthest away in the illusionary space. Artists created illusionistic space by depicting figures, objects, architecture and topographical features receding into the painting - the sense of space is often exaggerated by these features being shown receding into one or more of the different spaces within the composition. When an artist tries to create the impression of space receding into a painting, the effect on the viewer is to create an illusion of space seeming to either be closer to the viewer whilst other parts seem further away. As the development of perspective was crucial to creating a more naturalistic form of art.
Cultural Heritage (i.e a nation's heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible traditions (myths and legends) or a particular social grouping or society which have inherited both these tangible and intangible attributes from their ancestors. The knowledge, which is learnt from previous generations by the present, is then sought to be maintained and preserved in the present for the cultural and education benefit of future generations, whom will eventually become custodians of the knowledge which they have come to inherit down the line.

Tangible Cultural Heritage includes: architecture, artworks, literature and man made landscapes.

Intangible Cultural Heritage includes: traditions, folklore, indigenous knowledge and language.
Cultural Patrimony, is an a crucial concept, and it refers to an object that has ongoing cultural, traditional and historical importance to a particular society or social group. The intrinsic value of Cultural Patrimony is derived from cultural objects which are inherited from one's ancestors.
The Lindisfarne Gospel 700AD
Illuminated Manuscripts from the medieval period are all hand made and hand written, predominantly on parchment paper or vellum; made from goats' skin. The books comprise of illuminated pages, biblical narratives and historiated initials - which are highly decorated at the start of each page. The illuminated sections of the book and are elaborate, often decorated with gold leaf and colours from exotic plants such as lapis lazuli.
There appears to be a hidden feature, which allows users to use the iCloud service in a manner similar to dropbox. There are several tutorials for how to do this, here is the best.
Antiquity is a term used to describe the history and culture of a period of Western civilization - the epoch of the ancients. Particularly relating to Greco-Roman art and culture; prior to the decline of both civilizations.

Literary sources, art, sculpture and architecture were used and valued by the Renaissance masters as a source of inspiration for their work, as they believed all'antica art and architecture to be the ideal. Art which should be aspired towards and revered.
The Flagellation of Christ by Caravaggio
Click to enlarge
Tenebrism is a term, particularly related to European painting, used to describe the extreme contrasts between light and dark in a figurative composition as a means of heightening the dramatic effect of a painting. The most important tenebrist artist in the History of Art is Caravaggio who placed his figures against intense dark backgrounds, to increase the drama and movement within the painting, but to also enhance the three-dimensionality of the painting. All of which was achieved through a technique known as chiaroscuro; one of the four canonical modes of Renaissance art.
Classicizing is a broad artistic term used to describe any period of history which attempts to reintroduce features of Greco-Roman art and architecture from antiquity, namely using ancient subject matter or re-applying motifs.
Related term see article on all'antica
Raphael's - Pope Julius II
1511-1512 (Portrait)
Click to enlarge
Unione is the precise point where the contours, outlines and edges of objects and space meet and blend in a painting, yet remain perceptible to the viewer. They are not too blurred and they are not too bold. Unione is the point where the transition between objects and space is still noticeable. Raphael used this mode in his paintings, take a look at his portrait of Pope Julius II to see how he worked it into his compositions.
Michelangelo's - The Creation of Adam
From the Sistine Chapel Fresco cycle
Cangiante is one of the four canonical modes of Renaissance painting. The term is used to describe when a painter changes to a different lighter hue, when the original hue cannot be made to adapt and become light enough for what they are trying to achieve. On the converse of this a painter might change to a different darker hue, when the original hue cannot be made dark enough for the what they are attempting to achieve, stylistically speaking. (Read more after the Break)
To read more about the Four canonical modes of Renaissance painting, follow our links to our relevant posts, below they are arranged in from the top down in decreasing order of dramatic effect and visual impact; getting subtler as you go down the list:

The Juste Milieu art movement, meaning 'happy middle,' is a term to describe a painting philosophy which sought to make amends between the two dominant art movements in France at the time; namely the  Impressionist movement and the artists who continued with the Academic Style. Trying to combine the best aspects of the two art forms. The key artists of this group were able to mix with the Impressionists for exhibitions, but also those who continued with 'academism'.
Nudity, historically in art was tolerated and widely considered to be an accepted aesthetic practice. Nudity was a key feature in Mythological and History painting. However, once paintings started to portray women as naked, as was the case in Manet's Olympia (1863); this was deemed by society to be unacceptable. Despite, there being no difference in the level and amount of skin on display, it was the manner in which the female figures were depicted that was a cause for social concern.
The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci
1495 to 1498
Click to enlarge
Who is depicted in 'The Last Supper'
The figures within Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper, comprise the 12 Disciples. The painting is tempera painted on gesso and the work is located at the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie near Milan. The key figures are as follows:
The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci
1495 to 1498
Click to enlarge

The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci
1495 to 1498
Click to enlarge

The term Cartoon when applied to art, is a full sized (to scale) and often highly detailed preparation drawing on paper; namely for a fresco, painting on canvas or panel and for tapestries. The Cartoon forms part of an artist's preliminary drawings and sketches, as part of the process of arriving at their final compositional arrangement. (Continued after the break)
Academic art refers to the art which was produced in line with the defined doctrine and dogma of the established academies of painting and sculpture. These academies controlled, and some might say constrained, the art world from the early seventeenth century through to the nineteenth century.

Within the academies, both classical painting and ancient art were extolled for their benefits - in terms of technique, quality, style, ability and mastery of the subject matter, artist's such as Raphael, Leonardo and Titian were used as examples of this high art. Poussin and Caravaggio were other artists which were used in training art students. The ultimate goal was to produce History Painters, through compositional studies.
Envelope (french), when applied to painting - particularly the work of Claude Monet - refers to how light and atmosphere surround and are distributed evenly over the composition. It must be noted that objects are not restricted and constrained by the light, rather the light <Read More Below>
Art during the Renaissance period was intended to reflect the culture and beliefs of the time, through a classical guise. The art that was produced often carried with it a moralising message, predominantly directed toward the women of the time - telling them that they must remain chaste, virginal and pure; not falling fowl of the sins of the body.

Sandro Botticelli - The Birth of Venus
What message do you believe the painting above is trying to impress upon the viewer?
The meaning of the term all'antica when applied to art and architecture, is that which 'imitates the style of the ancients. At the time, the Renaissance style of art and architecture was viewed by contemporaries in terms of the "all'antica," or that which was produced in an ancient manner; namely in the style of the Romans. All'antica can be seen as art and architecture which was produced in the Renaissance period, taking its influence from the art of classical antiquity and in the process imitating it, as ancient works of art were viewed as the ideal.

Summary: All'antica - in the manner and style of the ancients.
all'antica - in the mode of the ancients
Apple has recently announced its new reincarnation of the iPad 3, along with a suite on new apps. Most notably Apple has released an iPhoto app. The iPad 3, or iPad HD, is only the slightest bit bigger than its predecessor and yet Apple's new creation packs a punch in the hardware department. The device has a new lithium-ion polymer battery, which is capable of lasting for 10 hours. In addition, Apple has included its new A5X chip which features a dual-core CPU and quad-core graphics. The screen resolution on the iPad 3 is capable of achieving 4 times the resolution of Apple's previous iteration of the iPad, with its newly enhanced retina display.  Finally the the mobile version of the iPad is bundled with a 4G connection, which is capable of achieving 5 times the data processing speeds of a 3g connection.

Final fact, the iPad 3's display has a far superior resolution to most HD televisions. Worth noting.
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