In order to center your adsense widget in the side bar of your blogger blog go to Design > Html Edit and then search for the following:


Just above this line place the following:

#AdSense1 { width: 120px; margin: auto; }

You will need to change the number/value of the width depending on the width of the banner that you have chosen. If you add any more adsense widgets to your side bar and want to get the same effect you will need to do the same thing. Alter the number after the #AdSense where appropriate- using 1,2,3 to achieve your desired result.

Disegno - derived from the Italian word to draw, a tradition of the Florentine School of art with its emphasis on drawing and design; and is rooted in the artists intellectual capacity to imagine and invent new compositions.

Colore - a word used to mark the Venetian School of painting during the Italian High Renaissance. Colore places an emphasis on the use of colour in a dominant manner, in order to enhance the tension, atmosphere and expressiveness of the overall composition. Colore,  as a result views colour as a fundamental part of a paintings composition.

Was the Romanesque period a miniature Renaissance, comprised of a rebirth and renewal in the arts: painting, sculpture and architecture, but also in terms of illuminated manuscripts and metal work?
This post will hopefully help you to remove the Subscribe posts (Atom Feed) at the bottom of your blogger page or post page.
  1. Go to dashboard --> template --> edit HTML
  2. Click the 'Expand Widgets Templates' box
  3. Find the following text:

<b:if cond='data:blog.pageType != "item"'> <!-- Blog feed links -->
<b:if cond='data:feedLinks'>
<div class='blog-feeds'>
<b:include data='feedLinks' name='feedLinksBody'/>

Now remove this line:

<b:include data='feedLinks' name='feedLinksBody'/>
This should have removed the Posts (Atom) at the bottom of your page. Remember to back up your template just in case anything ever goes wrong so that you can recover your blog.
An annotated version of Raphael's 'The school of athens' also known as 'The School of Philosophy' - 1509
Click to enlarge the image

The Figures in this monumental fresco are as follows:

1. Zeno of Citium

2. Federico II of Mantua

3. Epicurus

1. Changing the code for in-post and Labels widget.

  1. First, login to your Blogger account.
  2. Go to Dashboard --> Design --> Edit HTML.
  3. Remember to always back up your template, as a precaution.
  4. Tick the check box for  Expand Widget Templates on top left of the HTML window.
  5. Look for following line within your HTML code:


You may find more than one instance. Replace each one of them following:
expr:href='data:label.url + &quot;?max-results=5&quot;'

2. Further information, for if you want to change the code for labels menu tabs, in your pages bar at the top of your page
If you use the menu tabs to link to your label pages, you will need to append the links that you use to look like this:
in order to limit the number of posts shown when you click a labels link you will need to attach ?max-results=5 to the URL, like so:

The HTML code shown above will load up five results if your wish to show more or less simply change the number shown in yellow.
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
Have a look on Youtube
A pentimento is an alteration made to a painting, often indicated by an under drawing visible through the layers of paint by Xray. The evidence of traces of previous work shows that the artist changed their mind about their composition during the process of painting. Evidence of a pentimento, or pentimenti if plural, often shows that the artist was creating an original composition and was not imitating an established convention for the arrangement of specific subject matter.
An Oculus or circular window, has been an ever present feature of classical architecture, since the early sixteenth century. Oculus is the latin word for 'eye'. The oculus was a significant source of light in classical buildings.

The most famous example of the use of an oculus in architecture is at the Pantheon in Rome.

The Pantheon Rome. An example of an oculus at the center of a dome.

The term trompe l'oeil when applied to art refers to the artistic technique whereby the artist uses highly realistic imagery to create an optical illusion. In order to convey objects that are depicted within a painting, or drawing, as three-dimensional. This helps the overall drama and movement of the composition.

An example of the use of the artistic technique of trompe l'oeil.
By the artist Andrea Mantegna, this image is of the oculus on the
ceiling of the central chamber, at the castle San Giorgio in Mantua.

Fantastic exhibition starts today, check it out:

Was the Gothic era a minor Renaissance?
This post will look at how you center a picture in your blogger sidebar.

Firstly you need to go to Design > Edit Html and tick expand widgets. Secondly search for the text: widgetid='image1' remember to look for a different number as indicated in green depending upon which image widget you are intending to change.

Now add --> align='center' <-- to <div id='sidebar-wrap'>  which should be located near the widgetid='image1' text, it is usually below it.

Your line should now look like:

<div align='center' id='sidebar-wrap'>

Now click preview check it works, if it does not click clear edits and consider changing the number in green if you have more than one image widget. Or if it works in the preview click save and your done.
This post will look at how to center the adsense widget in the blogger sidebar of your blog. 
Firstly you need to go Design > Edit Html and tick expand widgets. Then search for the following lines of text:

[<b:widget id='AdSense1' locked='false' title='' type='AdSense'> 
<b:includable id='main'> 
  <div class='widget-content'> 

Now in order to achieve your desired effect you must add the following in red the following:

[<b:widget id='AdSense1' locked='false' title='' type='AdSense'> 
<b:includable id='main'> 
  <div class='widget-content' align='center'

In order for this method to be successful you will need to take into account the location of your sidebar adsense widget in relation to the other places on your page where you have adsense. For example if you have an adsense header on you page you may need to search instead, note the blue text, for your second adsense widget (AdSense2) or possibly your third adsense widget (AdSense3) located in your Html. So if the first option does not work for you, clear your edits, and try again for your other adsense widgets until you achieve your desired result.
Light, sensuous, intensely decorative French style developed in the early eighteenth century, after the death of Louis XIV. The development of the style was considered to be in reaction to the Baroque grandeur of Versailles. The name comes from French term rocaille, meaning rock-work, the style derives inspiration from the forms of sea shells and corals. 

The Rococo style is characterised by: 

  • Short curves
  • Scrolls and counter curves
  • All of which are highly elaborated with fantasy.

Baroque is a highly emotional style in architecture, painting and sculpture. The style originated and achieved its height in Rome from 1630 - 1680, however its influence spread and extended across Europe.

Notable Baroque Artists:

  • Bernini, the sculpture and architect in Rome.
  • Sir Peter Paul Rubens, who was active in Northern Europe. Rubens was the artist who decorated the ceiling at the Banqueting House in London for Charles I.
  • Sir Anthony Van Dyck, is another notable baroque artist, he was a pupil of Rubens' and worked as a court painter in Britain for Charles I.
Leonardo da Vinci's "Virgin of the Rocks"  1505.
The National Gallery of London.
Sfumato is one of the four canonical painting modes of the Renaissance. The Italian word sfumato means to shade. In the finished painting the composition appears as though it has a thin veil of smoke that partially conceals the subject of the painting from the viewer. Thereby adding some areas of brightness to pure regions of darkness, and partially blocking some regions of light.
The term Chiaroscuro can be characterised as the contrast between light and dark areas of a painting, which are usually bold contrasts that affect the entire composition. Often used to add drama and movement to a composition. Chiaroscuro is also often used as a technical term by artists and art historians to describe the use of contrasting light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects such as architectural features and the human body.

Caravaggio's  - The Taking of Christ (1602). Example of the use of the canonical technique of Chiaroscuro.
The use of the technique has heightened the dramatic effect of this painting.

An artists Oeuvre can be defined as the works of a painter or sculpture. So in essence an artists Oeuvre is a substantial body of work constituting the life work of an artist.
A small oil sketch modello
for a 5m high altarpiece
by Tiepolo
A diagrammatic representation; in addition it could be an outline, model or a plan for an overall composition. Also relates to an artists modello for a paintings final composition.

For example:
The artistic achieved his overall vision for the composition by representation through a set of characteristic and recognisable schemata.
A term commonly used to describe the more extreme styles of art that were in reaction to the traditional European conception of art as the imitation of nature and heightening of its beauty, during the 20th century.

Abstract Art, can be viewed in two distinct, yet contradictory tendencies:

The first is, that abstract art is the reduction of natural appearances to simplify shapes and forms within the composition.

The second notion of abstract art is, creation of art objects in nondescript, non-representational forms.
Richard Hamilton widely regarded as the founder of pop art, to his annoyance, has died today at the age of 89. Hamilton was committed to blurring the boundaries between high and low culture, to great effect, in an age where the mediums of radio, television and cinema were garnering mass exposure.
Step 1
In order to create an archive page you must go to Dashboard -> Design -> Page Elements. Then create an archive widget, proceed to drag and place your archive widget directly below your Blog Posts gadget. 

Step 2
From blogger, click the Posting | Edit Pages tab, then click New Page. Ideally name your new page 'Archive' and leave this page blank for now.

Step 3
Then go to the Edit HTML button in the design tab, click control + F and search for </b:skin> and place the following line of text directly below: </b:skin>

<b:if cond='data:blog.url == &quot;;'>

<b:if cond="data:blog.url != &quot;;">

Step 4
Copy the web address of your newly created blog's archive page, and replace the section in red with it. Be sure to include the .html part of your custom domain name or with your blogspot address. e.g. with                                     

Now save your template, and your done. Note, you must only have one archive widget on your blog and it must be in the location specified in this post in order to work.

The simplest way to add navigation tabs to your blog is through the Page List gadget. However, as you have probably noticed the Page List gadget can be quite restrictive in only allowing your static pages to be displayed.

The following it a simple manipulation, that will allow you to display non-static pages in your blogger blog's navigation menu, the Page List.


1. Dashboard > Design > Edit Html

2. Check the Expand Widget Template box, located at the top right of the editing window.

3. Now search for the following line within your template:
<b:widget id='PageList1' locked='false' title='Pages'

4. You should now have the following located below:

<b:widget id='PageList1' locked='false' title='Pages' type='PageList'>
<b:includable id='main'>
<b:if cond='data:title'><h2><data:title/></h2></b:if>
<div class='widget-content'>
<b:loop values='data:links' var='link'>
<b:if cond='data:link.isCurrentPage'>
  <li class='selected'><a expr:href='data:link.href'><data:link.title/></a></li>
<li><a expr:href='data:link.href'><data:link.title/></a></li>
Your Code here
<b:include name='quickedit'/>

5. You will put the code for the links that you wish to add below  </b:loop> 
Each of your links should be as follows, placing one line of code for each link below the next:

<li><a href="YourLink/URL">TitleofLink</a></li>

Your Link/Url will be the destination, and the Title of Link will be the name that shows up in your Page List navigation bar.

6. Now Preview, if your not happy with the styling just click clear edits, otherwise click save and your done.

7. Additional tip, to make your link open in a new browser tab using the following:
<li><a href="YourLink/URL"target="_blank">TitleofLinkt</a></li>

In order to center your blogger adsense widget  in the header of your blog go to Design > Html Edit and search for the line:


Just before this line place the following code:

width: 728px;
margin: auto;

You may need to change the number/value of the width depending on the width of the banner that you have chosen. If you have more than one adsense widget on your blog you may need to alter the number after the #AdSense where appropriate- using 1,2,3 to achieve your desired result.

In painting, the term staffage, is used to refer to the animal and human figures depicted within the composition. Staffage figures can be usually be found within a landscape scene where their role within the painting is not the main subject of the work. Therefore the term is can be applied to small animals and figures that are not essential to the subject matter, but rather are used to animate the composition.

Claude Lorrain - Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (1682).
Landscape used as part of a history painting.

The word carries with it two meanings when referring to a painting, for example:  as a general term relating to figures within a scene, even if they are part of the primary subject matter. Another view is that staffage is a descriptive term used to pertain to figures who have little to do with the narrative of the painting and are used for compositional or decorative reasons. The figures therefore serve as accessories, adding an extra dimension to the scene. In addition they give the viewer a sense of scale of the overall composition.

Staffage figures can usually be found in:

  • Landscape Paintings
  • History Paintings
The term Enfilade is used to refer to the axial arrangement of a sequence of rooms. In other words a suite of rooms that are formally connect to one another in a linear arrangement through a sequence of doorways.

The plan of Blenheim Palace, the blue arrows
indicate the suite of rooms arranged in Enfilade.
The Enfilade arrangement of principal state rooms (also can be called public rooms) was most common in grand European country houses during the Baroque era. Mainly during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Plan of Westminster Abbey - with the
theatrical epicenter of the church
highlighted in red.
The Lantern is the theatrical heart of a church. It serves as the focal point for major events, located at the eastern edge of the central crossing, of a traditional cathedral that has been constructed to a cruciform plan. This area of the church is often located under a crossing-tower, which in turn provides streams of light into the centre of the church, hence the term lantern.
After the fall of the Roman Empire there was a power vacuum throughout Europe, this resulted in a cultural blackout in Western Europe. The Medieval era started with the fall of Rome, at the hands of Barbarian tribes, and lasted until the cultural "rebirth" which is known as the Renaissance. The middle ages are often referred to the "dark ages" because of this decline both artistically and culturally throughout Europe.

The French abbot Saint Bernard of
 Clairvaux (1090 - 1152) was a principal
 protagonist in Europe's artistic revival.
However, it can be argued that during the 12th century, a period known as the Romanesque era, there was small  Renaissance. A "mini-Renaissance" if you will. This cultural rebirth was focused within the monasteries throughout Western Europe, where the act of devotion and religious piety was shown through the monks' artistic discipline, most notably in the production of  manuscripts. The two regions where this artistic light burnt brightest where in England and Ireland. As both the countries rather unusually developed an extensive network of monasteries, in contrast to mainland Europe which under papal authority built far more churches than monasteries.

At the heart of a monastery, besides a church, was the workshop. These workshops served as a focal point for life within the monastery, they provided vital revenues for the running of the monastery, they occupied the clergies' time, prevented them from sin and acts of temptation and allowed them to illustrate their devotion to God through their work. The tasks that they accomplished such as the production of manuscripts was both extensive and time-consuming. The key aim of the monks was to use these devotional aids and religious tools such as manuscripts, Gospel books, Bible production and Books of Hours in order to complete their mission of Christianising the barbarian tribes of Europe and from there spreading the word of God to the rest of the world.

Rose Window at the Basilica
of Saint Denis

Rose window is a term used to refer to a circular window. Often used as a principle feature of a Romanesque or Gothic church's clerestory. Rose windows can usually be found with highly ornate tracery and are divided into segments by stone mullions, with stained glass usually set in between.

Some notable churches with highly ornate Rose windows:
  • Notre Dame - North Transept
  • Chartres Cathedral - North Transept
  • Durham Cathedral
  • York Minster

Hugo van der Goes - Portinari Altarpiece (1475)
The Portinari altarpiece is a religious triptych commissioned by Tommaso Portinari. The overall composition depicts the Adoration of the shepherds, but in today's short post we will just be looking at the still life within the central panel.

At the heart of the foreground within the central panel lies two vases of flowers, next to which lies a sheaf of wheat. The symbolism of the wheat, is of the Last Supper where Christ broke the bread (also symbolic of the Eucharist). The white lilies in the vase next to the kneeling angel represent purity and the immaculate conception, the orange lilies are symbolic and allude to Christ's "Passion" later in life; and the purple iris flowers and columbine stalks in the second vase correspond to the "Seven Sorrows of the Virgin." Which are:
There are 6 major genres in painting:

1. History Painting - Classical or Mythological or Biblical compositions

2. Portrait Painting 

3. Genre Painting - Are scenes that are depicted from everyday life

Hieronymus Bosch - The Garden of Earthly Delights. 1495
Sir Peter Paul Rubens - Venus, Mars and Cupid . 1626
In early Flemish art the body, more specifically nudity, represented original sin, pity and lack of morality. However after Lutheran doctrine, the body once again became an object of beauty, something to be admired, in Flemish art and no longer had any of the negative connotations that were previously associated with it.
The Arnolfini Portrait (1434) - oil on oak panel
by Jan van Eyck

A dog in a painting often represents loyalty and fidelity. For instance in Jan Van Eyck's- Th Arnolfini Wedding portrait, 1431. Where the dog represents fidelity and as a result the marriage obligations between the pair. As the two stand on the 'holy ground of matrimony'.
        There is another argument for this portrait which will be covered in a later post.
The Lily in art represents: purity, chastity and virginity, as a result it is often used in religious imagery. Such as with the Virgin Mary.
Can the period defined as the Romanesque era be considered to be a small Renaissance?
How to read and interpret art

This post will hopefully equip you with some of the basic ideas to apply when trying to study a painting:
Boy with a Basket of Fruit by Caravaggio
Click to enlarge 
  • Identification- e.g type of object, materials, period and school of painting.
  • Authorship- Artist's name, patron's name. Finding these out are key to developing your interpretation
  • Subject Matter- What is shown in the painting? What is the artist trying to convey?
  • Function- What is the artworks use or purpose in its original location. e.g. was it intended as a devotional piece- a devotional aid?
  • Context- At what point in the artist's career was the work painted? Social situation, any historic precedences, the artistic customs of the time.
  • Style- The use of specific visual forms, or the ways the artist creates their images (fluid brush-strokes, a vibrant colour palette ect.)
  • Treatment- The decisions that the artist made when composing their composition; any narrative devices employed by the artist in presenting the subject? Especially to help guide the viewers' reading of the subject matter.
  • Provenance- Similar to context, just a nice word to use.
Ticking each one of these off as you go through a painting will help you in your interpretation, they're useful when going around a gallery, writing an essay or just to test and develop your interpretative skills. (Read more after the Break) © All rights reserved. Part of Mumble Media. Powered by Blogger.