Friday, 13 April 2012

Gladstone and Disraeli 1800 -1898 timeline




Gladstone and Disraeli 1800 -1898 timeline

1804 – Disraeli is born.

1809 – Gladstone is born.

1832 – Gladstone first enters the Commons as a Tory MP who opposed parliamentary reform, defended slavery and the Anglican Church.

1837 – Disraeli enters parliament, representing the rotten borough of Maidstone. He was a Tory and backed Peel.

1839 – Disraeli marries the wife of his sponsor, his wife was twelve years older than him, and he was able to pay off his debts.

1841 to 1843 – Gladstone assumes junior office under Peel.

1843 to 1845 – Gladstone has Cabinet office under Peel. And he shows his support for Free Trade. He is member of the Cabinet as president of the Board of Trade in Peel’s Conservative government.

1844 – Disraeli and the ‘Young England’ group begin to attack Peel’s policies. Disraeli’s novel Coningsby attacks the Tamworth Manifesto as ‘an attempt to construct a party without principles’.

1845 – Peel passes Maynooth grant. As a result 149 Tory MPs opposed it.

1846 – Repeal of Corn Laws. The Tory party subsequently splits into Protectionists and Peelites. Gladstone sides with Peel and Disraeli with the Protectionists led by Derby.

1852 – Disraeli first holds Cabinet office as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Palmerston and then Russell.

1859 – The Conservative’s franchise reform bill is defeated. Palmerston and Russell agree to bring down the Tory government (meeting at Willis rooms). Palmerston becomes Prime Minister.

1859 to 1866 – Gladstone becomes Chancellor for the second time. He joins the Whigs out of ambition and dislike of Disraeli. (Read more after Break)
1860 – Disraeli begins to reform the Tory party.

1861 – Gladstone repeals the paper duties, thus improving literacy, despite opposition from the Lords. Also the American civil war breaks out.

1862 – Gladstone gains a popular reputation as a reformer after touring around many of the Northern industrial towns.

1863 – Marked the year when the Post Office Savings Bank was ordered to be established by Gladstone.

1864 – Gladstone states that he wishes for further, more extensive parliamentary reform.

1865 – American civil war comes to an end. Palmerston wins general election with an increased liberal majority. Palmerston dies being succeeded by Russell who had a commitment to parliamentary reform.

1866 – Russell Liberal government defeated over reform proposals

1867 – Disraeli manages to pass the Second Reform Act; Gladstone becomes leader of the Liberal Party.

1868 – Marked the year of Disraeli’s first ministry. A short-lived event, resulting in Disraeli’s government being ousted from government, he continued to serve as leader of the Conservatives.

1868 to 1874 – Gladstone’s First Ministry: During his ministry parliament witnessed major reforms/legislation dealing with the Irish Church, civil service, army, elementary education, law courts, the secret ballot and trade unions. Disraeli was furious as many of these reforms conflicted with a deeply held Tory policy that was “Crown, Church and Constitution.”

1874 to 1874 – Marked Disraeli’s Second Ministry, which saw significant social reform. For example with regard to public health, factory conditions and working hours, picketing and the removal of inner city slums which was able to occur due to new powers given to local councils.
         With regard to foreign policy this period in history also saw major developments in foreign affairs under Disraeli’s directive. For instance the purchase of the Suez Canal shares, both wars in Afghanistan and South Africa, in addition to making Queen Victoria the Empress of India (a very significant statement of British power and prestige). The 1878 Congress of Berlin also serves to temporarily resolve the Eastern Question- illustrates that Disraeli was open to multilateral diplomacy.
         In 1876 Disraeli is made the Earl of Beaconsfield.

1875 – Gladstone grows disillusioned and resigns from his position as leader of the Liberal Party; he only re-emerged into politics during the 1879 to 1880 Midlothian campaigns.

1880 to 1885 – Gladstone forms his Second Ministry, he proceeded with Britain’s involvement in colonial wars such as in the Sudan and he instigated a war in Egypt. More reform:
·      Redistribution Act: 1885
·      Irish Land Act: 1881 – was an attempt to resolve the Irish Question
·      Third Reform Act: 1884

1881 – Disraeli dies

1886 – Gladstone’s Third Ministry and he continues to address the Irish question.

1892 to 1894 – Gladstone’s Fourth Ministry, also dominated by Irish Home Rule.

1898 – Gladstone dies.

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